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„The authoritarian nature of these nations hindered meaningful political participation and the development of civil society organisations. The statist ideology and patrimonial tendencies of this regime made the nation a significant, if not exclusive guarantee for the livelihood of many citizens in exchange for their loyalty. (...) Internally, the background of the revolutions was expanding urbanisation, an increasingly young population, an increase in literacy and improved education standards, combined with an expansive economic liberalisation and as the result of inequality, social exclusion and marginalisation. These structural changes led to the development of dissident social groups, and they challenged the corrupt authoritarian Arab regimes that had prompted these changes.“ (Asef Bayat)

Mohammed Mursi, chairman of the Muslim Brotherhood, was modern Egypt‘s first elected president. Even if his removal from office by the military under the authority of Abd al-Fattah al-Sisi was supported by millions on the streets of Cairo, continued conflicts show that the nation is divided; there‘s very little space for elaboration between ‚for‘ and ‚against‘.

29th of October 2013
Almost all of the car drivers that drove by these schoolgirls demonstrating pro-Mursi in the Gizeh neighbourhood cast their vote with a hand signal: A peace sign for Sisi, a tucked-in thumb and four spread fingers for Mursi.